Gornell University Library Ithaca, Nem York








Cornell University Libra

The Tasmanian flora.

Cornell University


The original of this book is in the Cornell University Library.

There are no known copyright restrictions in the United States on the use of the text.













Tus work is mainly designed to encourage junior students to take a general interest in the vegetable beings living in this State. In pursuit of this end technicalities have been reduced, descriptions and general information have been abbreviated, and economy has been studied in every part.

The system adopted is that of Hooker and Brntuam, the one that is at present in use in most English-speaking communities. Many efforts have been made in recent years to improve on this. The late Baron von MuELueER designed a system thet is at present used largely in Victoria, and partially in New South Wales and South Australia, but it is doubtful if any extensive change will be made until a scheme is presented containing such radical improvements that a prospect of reasonable permanence may be foreseen.

The main objection to Hooker and Bentuam’s system is that it contains a section—the Monochlamydeex or Incomplete—that really is a sort of dumping- ground for all forms+that have no relations elsewhere. This, of course, is not as it should be. Here we have primitive forms that have not yet acquired the typical Dicotyledonous form classified with plants of a reduced character that once possessed that form and have evolved away from it.. But the state of affairs is not improved by distributing the Incompletes haphazard amongst the rest. Students should always bear in mind that not only are the great groups of plants descended from types long since lost, but the smaller groups and Natural Orders are seldom related in direct descent, and therefore any system that undertakes to classify plants in linear succession must necessarily be arbitrary, and almost entirely erroneous. Muz.ier’s arrangement, and a more recent system by Dr. Warmine, of Copenhagen, will be found in the Appendix.

Plants, other than grasses, that have established themselves since Tasmania has been settled have only in few instances received the attention of natives, but are placed in an indented position. Had convenience permitted, their descriptions would have appeared in smaller type.

The Plates must not be looked upon as the work of the Printing Department ; they are faithful copies of the author’s drawings. Had the departmental artists been permitted to idealise them some departure from a faithful copy of nature must have resulted, besides which increased cost would have necessitated a considerable decrease in number, which may have been the reverse of desirable.


The intersticial keys are not uniform. Those necessarily arbitrary are dichotomously arranged; where permissible more direct comparison has been adopted.

Flowering periods are more general than, particular, and local distribution

is, perhaps, all too meagre.

The synonyms included -are only those required for reference to voN Moeuuer’s works, Benruam’s “Flora Australiensis,” and Hooxer’s ‘“ Flora


In the Appendix will be found a Dictionary that is something more than a Glossary. Names of genera and most of those constructed from |the names of individuals have not been included. Immediately before the body of the work, appears a Key to the Natural Orders and some other groups. This is constructed purely to help those who approach the study with little or no previous experience.

The author would take this opportunity of expressing his thanks to very numerous friends who have helped him. Chiefly amongst these W. V. FirzGERAwD, who for years forwarded valuable material; T. B. Moors, for many most interesting plants; Auc. Stmson, for the use of his fine collection; ALEX. Morron, whose persistence alone prevented disaster during the incubation of this work; and R. M. Jounsron, for kindlv help whenever needed.

Hobart, 1903.


In the Flora of a country or district it is customary to include only the races of plants that have developed true flowers, the races that stand in an intermediate position with their floral elements defined, but still dispersed or collected in cones (as in the Lycopods and Conifers and the more elaborated branch of Cryptogams), the Ferns that bear no flowers in the true sense, but whose principal development bears spores only.

The term flower is sometimes applied to the gametic reproductive organs of Cryptogams. This is not an exact use of the term. The name flower was given to and is considered to denote any specialised ageregation of foliar members on or about some of which are developed the organs that produce the spores in which takes’ place the rudimentary development that is homologous with the whole gametophytic generation of the Cryptogams.

The following is the scheme and definitions of the plants described :—

ANGIOSPERMS.—Plants in which the ovules are developed in more or less closed sacks. The spore-bearing members, the stamens and pistil, are in typical instances gathered into clusters surrounded by much-altered leaves, the whole specialised mass being termed a flower. In many primitive forms this type- condition has not been reached, in others various reductions from the perfect condition of the flower have taken place. But however much the flower may be simplified, there are no Angiosperms that stand on the border-land of this and any other division. The division is well-marked and circumscribed.

This division is composed of two very distinct and well marked classes.


DicorrLepons, generally termed the Higher Flowering Plants, from their tissues and members having attained a more complex structure. The leaves are often very varied in shape, with the smaller vascular bundles forming a more or less intricate net of meshes in the green substance of the leaf, though in some few plants, ¢,f. Epacridacee, the veins are all or mostly parallel. The elements of the flowers are almost always in cycles of 4 or 5, rarely of 3 or6. The embryo, which is often sufficiently developed to completely exclude the albumen, has always two opposite seed-leaves or cotyledons, except in some parasitic plants, where even these members have been reduced out of existence. This class is here arranged as follows :—

Sub-Class 1.—Choripetale. Calyx and corolla normally present. Petals free from one another, except in few aberrant forms. Series 1.—Thalamiflore. Petals and stamens inserted into the torus below the pistil. Series 2.—Wisciflore. Petals and stamens inserted on or about a fleshy disk formed on the torus.


Series 3.—Calciflore. Torus more or !ess developed into a tube that may be hardly apparent or grown to the full height of the pistil, and then often confluent with it. The petals and stamens inserted on this floral tube.

Sub-Class 2.—Gamopetale. Calyx and corolla normally present. Petals more or less united. Stamens usually inserted on the corolla-tube. Series 1.—Epigyne. Sepals and petals inserted on the top of the ovary.

Series 2.—Hypogyne. Ovary free, above the insertion of the corolla. Sub-Class 3.—Monvchalamydee. Perianth normally consisting of a single envelope, or (where double) not conspicuously differentiated. Plants of aprimitive type. Also including some reduced forms of doubtful affinity. The following is a linear classified list of Dicotyledonous Orders grouped in Alliances :—

THALAMIFLOR A. ALLIANCE 8.—CELASTRALES. ; Order xxii. Stackhousiacee.

ALLIANCE 1.—RANALEs. vee xxii. Rhamnacee.

Order 1. Ranunculacee. ii. Dilleniacee. ALLIANCE 9.—SAPINDALES. il. Magnoliacea. Order xxiv. Sapindacee. ALLIANCE 2.—PARIETALES. Order iv. Papaveracee. CALYCIFLOR AL. v. Crucifere. Aturance 10.—Rosates. vi. Violacee. ; Order xxv. Leguminosee. ALLIANCE 3.—POLYGALINED. xxvi. Rosacee. a e Order vii, Puttosporacee. Auuiance 11.—Saxtrracates.

vill. Tremandracee.

oe Order xxvii. Saxifragacee.

, xxviii. Crassulacee. ALLIANCE 4,—CaRYOPHYLLINER. xxix. Droseracee.

Order x. P rankeniacee. ALLIANCE 12.—Myeratss. xi. Caryophyllacee.

xu. Portulacacee. Order xux. Haloragen. xxxi. Myrtacee. ALLIANCE 5,—GUTTERIFERALES. RBRMs a thracee. eK P XXX111, NUAGTACER. Order xii. Flatinacee. o xiv. Hypericacee. AxuLiance 13.—CucurRBITALES.

Order xxxiv. Cucurbitacee.

ALLIANCE 6.—Ma ; Tn) 6.—MALVALES xxxv. Ficoidacee.

Order xv. Malvacee. Xvi. Sterculiace. Avtiance 14.—Umeewianus. xvii. Z'tliacee. Order xxxvi. Umbellifere. xxxvil. Araliacee. DISCIFLORA. ALLIANCE 7.—GERANIALES, GAMOPETALA EPIGYNA Order xviii. Linacee. : xix. Zygophyllacee. Aunrance 15.—Rvsrates. xx. Geruniacce. Order xxxviii. Caprifoliacee.

xxi. Rutacee. xxxix. Rubiacee.



Order xl. Composite. Order lviii. Labiatee.

lix. Plantaginacee. ALLIANCE 17,—CaAMPANALES, a

Order xli. Campanulacee.

xli. Goodeniacee. MONOCHLAMYDE. xlili. Stylidacee. ALLIANCE 24,—CHENOPODIALES. Order Ix. Phytolaccacee.

GAMOPETALA HYPOGYNA. Ixi. Chenopodiacee.

ALurance 18,.—BRIcaues. Ixii. Amarantacee. Ixili. Scleranthacee.

Order xliv. Hricacee. lxiv. Polygonacee.

xlv. Epacridacee. ALniance 25.—Lavurauts.

Order Ixy. Monimiacee. Ixvi. Lauraceae.

ALLIANCE 19,—PrimvuLatts.

Order xlvi. Plumbaginacee. xlvii. Primulacee.


Ord. se Order lxvil. Proteaceae. rder xlviii. Oleacee. lxviii. Lhymeliaceee. xlix. Apocynacee. 1. Loganiacee. ALLiance 27.—EurHorBIALEs, li, Gentianacee. Order lxix. Huphorbiacee.

ALLIANCE 21.— Reman De VemGenns

Order it Boraginacee. Order lxx. Urticacee. lii. Convolvulacee. liv. Solanaceae. ALLIANCE 29.—AMENTALES.

Order lxxi. Caswarinacee.

ALLIANCE 22.—PERSONALES. af ; : laxu. Cupulifere.

Order lv. Scrophulariacee. lvi. Lentibulacee. Atniancgs 80.—Santacaes. Ivii. Myoporacee. lxxiii. Santalacee.

The Mownocoty.epons, which are looked upon as a lower class of flowering plants, are notable chiefly for their leaves retaining a simple shape, parallel venation, and often sheathing bases. The cycles of the flowers are generally composed of 3 or 6members. The structure of the embryo is distinct, in the first leaf being solitary.

The Monocotyledons do not stand as an intervening link between Dicotyledons and lower plants, but form a well-marked group of specially-developed types from a primordial centre, some of the forms, as Graminee, being very specialised. At the same time, in the geologic record they greatly antedate the other class. Monocotyledons have been traced back even to the Carboniferous eva, while Dicotyledons only make their appearance just prior to the Cretaceous. No Tasmanian member of this division exceeds the condition of perennial herbs.

The following is the classification of the Monocotyledons here adopted :—

SuB-CLASS—PETALOIDE® EPIGYNE. Svus-cLass—PETaLOIDEH HYPOGYNE. Order lxxiv. Hydrocharidee. Order Ixxix. Ldiacee. lxxv. Orchidacee. lxxx. Ayridacee. lxxvi. Burmanmacee. Ixxxi. Juncacee. Ixxvii. IJridacee. lxxxii. Z'yphacee.

Ixxvili. Amaryllidacee. Ixxxiii. Lemnacee.


Supecrass—PETALOIDEZ HYPOGEN#.— Sus-cLass—GLUMIFLORA. continued. Order lxxxvi. Centrolepidea. Order Ixxxiv. Naiadee. Ixxxvii. Restiacec.

Ixxxvili. Cyperacee. lxxxix. Graminee.

GYMNOSPERMS.-—Plants in which typical ovules are developed and the gametic generation, though still very rudimentary, is much more defined than in Angiosperms. The ovules are not developed in closed sacks or carpels, but upon the upper surfaces of scale-like bracts, or may appear naked and terminal, sometimes more or less enclosed in a fleshy aril, microspores still maintaining the character of pollen and formed in well-developed stamens. Stamens and pistils often massed into cones, but no specialisation of members to form true flowers. :

The Gymnosperms, represented in the present day principally by Conifers, such as Pines, Cypresses, Yews, date back long before the time of Angiosperms, forms occurring as remotely as the Old Red Sandstone era. And whereas in the present day the Angiosperms contain as varied forms as perhaps they ever did, the Gymnosperms have long passed their prime, which appears to have been in the Mesozoic era. Also, though we have no evidence yet unfolded to demonstrate the descent of the great sub-divisions of the Angiosperms, we have abundant evidence of the close relationship of the Gymnosperms to the ferns through the Heterosporous Lycopods

lxxxv. Alismacee.

Representatives of only two orders occur in Tasmania :—

Cupressacee (Cypresses). Cover scales and ovuliferous scales entirely fused, forming somewhat solid cone scales that usually bear many ovules.

Taxacee (Yews). Ovuliferous scale wanting. . Cones never woody, generally succulent. Ovule sometimes solitary and immersed in a fleshy aril.

PTERYDOPHYTA.—( Fern-tribe).—Plants which do not develop flowers, and whose spore-bearing sacks are either developed in clusters or singly, upon the backs or margins, or sometimes immersed in the tissues of, leaves or at the base or axils of leaves. The spore-bearing leaves similar to the barren leaves, or sometimes greatly specialised, but never assuming the character of cones. Spores in some orders of two kinds, small and large; the small-spored sacks never assuming the specialised form of stamens, the microspores producing semi-enclosed gamophytic growth, in which are developed antheridia that produce motile gametes; the large-spored sacks producing megaspores that develop semi-enclosed gamophytic growth, in which is produced archegonia that develop each an ovum. This development of the megaspore differs in little but degree from the development taking place in the Gymmnosperms, only in the latter they remain attached to the parent plant, while in the former they are shed from the sporangia before, or soon after, commencing gamophytic development. In other orders the spores are all of one size; each spore grows into an independent being in the form of a flat, green, thalloid plant or prothallus, from a quarter to a few inches in size, with the essential organs of reproduction, the antheridia and archegonia, developed on the under surface.

The plants representing the Pterydophyta in our flora are few in number, and varied in structure. They are the remaining representatives of a vast and luxuriant flora that, dating back into early Palwozoic times, reached a marvellously rich development in the later Palzozoic ages, to dwindle down to a comparatively modest rank in the present day. We find accordingly that many present-day forms—little, retiring plants, with apparently no immediate relatives—are the sole surviving descendants of noble and important families.


The Pterydophyta, on the whole, form a well-defined group, closely connected on one side with Gymnosperms, but on the other no immediate relationship to. lower plants can be traced. They may be classified as follows :—

Class Filicine (Fervs in the broadest sense). Sub-class Filices (True-ferns). Sub-class Hydropteride (Water-ferns).

Class Lycopodine (Club-mosses). Sub-class Lycopodiacee (Homosporous). Sub-class Selaginellacee (Heterosporus). Sub-class Isoétacee (Quill-worts).








es ne

Plants developing true flowers and inulidplying by pro- ducing seeds ... ..

Reproductive organs “not “assuming. “the ‘typical | floral design, forming seeds upon scaly bracts, often in cones..

Flowerless; reproducing by means of spores ... ...

. Parts of flowers seldom in threes or multiples of ‘ited

number (except Elatine and Euphorbia), sometimes col- lected into cones; leaves usually with netted veins, and seldom with a sheathing base (except Epacridacea). Parts of flower usually 3 or 6, if fewer or obscure sur- rounded by more or less unequal scarious glumes, never in cones. Leaves generally with pele veins and sheathing bases (except many Orchids) . Bead

. Flowers small or minute, few or more etten: numerous, in

a dense head surrounded by bracts. Stamens (except in Xanthiwm) united in a tube round the style ..

Flowers seldom in dense heads, and ERR so disposed ‘the stamens are free from one another . ete Gis) eS! Jase

. Herbaceous, mostly annuals..

Trees, shrubs, undershrubs, or r climbers, 1 with at least a woody axis, sometimes reduced to dwarf i, og sees ceous) forms .

. Leaves, all or rr, atten ates sepsis or none .

Leaves, all or most, opposite orwhorled .

. Flowers with a distinct calyx and aoreils, . sea ade

Calyx and corolla, though present, obscurely distinct .

Flowers with only one floral envelope, which may be coloured like a corolla or pails and obscure, or without any floral envelope at all... ... ... ..

. Petals irregular, partially mere once peaiiees ey 2

small scales ... .. er Calyx petaloid, irregular ; ‘petals ‘smaller, ‘reduced ... ...

. Petals quite free from one another ...

Petals slightly or distinctly joined ..

. Corolla quite regular ...

Petals not all similar to one another in size and shape ...

Petals inserted on the top of the flower-stalk, below ‘ihe ovary, or on the calyx, near the base ... .

Petals inserted above the ovary or on the floral-tube, at a considerable distance from the base ... ... 01. 0. cee ee

Stamens very NUMETOUS 2.0... cee cee cee cee cee cee cee eee ee Stamens usually 5 to 10 .

Pistil formed of many atinet sagpels leawes. divided into distinct or nearly distinct leaflets or secon ge Pistil entire; leaves lobed or entire ... ...

Sepals usually soon falling ; petals and ee free. a the calyx ...

Sepals persistent : “petals and stamens ‘inserted on "the calyx, close to its base ... ... ...

Stamens dark, free from one anothers stigmas forming a disk at the top of the ovary .

Stamens pale, united in a central. column, ‘or in a tube round the style ; style distinct . ie

Calyx of 5 free Benn stamens end pistil in (Shes | same flower .. eye : sabes


. (p. 275.) Gy MNOSPERMS.

161. CryptocaMs.

38. DicoryLEpons.

147. MonocoTYLEDONs.

xl. Composite.

4. 5.


iv. Fumaria. ix. Polygalacee.


10. 21.



12. 165.

13. 14.

i. Ranunculacee. xxvi. Rosacee. iv. Papaveracee.

xv. Malvaceae.
















. Flowers yellow ... ..


Calyx of 5 united sepals; flowers very small; lana and stamens 5; stamens and Bisel on i canada owers . Calyx of 2 or 4 free sepals ..

Leaves Grhieular, divided into 3 leaflets, or anak divided stamens 10. aide a8 eae seauais ai

Leaves linear ; “stamens 5.

Leaves variously shaped,: “covered: “with iong-stalked sticky glands; stamens 5 . asiat a

Sepals 4; petals 4; stuns 6, “bist sometimes some im- perfect .. 2th iaidtey Gamat bales Sepals 2; ‘petals. 5; “stamens 5 to 8 .

Floral Fibs long and free round the. segs “petals in- serted at its mouth . Calyx-lobes inserted above the ovary .

Ovary distinctly formed of two 1-seeded warvelee sense, petals, and stamens 5 .

Carpels indistinct, many- “seeded ; “sepals and | petals 5; stamens 2; plant densely tufted; moss-like ... ... 3

‘Sepals and petals 4; stamens 8 . i

Flowers small, green, obscure; "piled ssemiflye rough ovary short, with four l-seeded cells ... ... .

Flowers usually conspicuous; ovary linear; seeds | very numerous, with a tuft of hairs at one end ... ... .

Corolla nearly regular, with 5 spreading petals Corolla very irregular; a pee speuGless the stamens and pistil ... ...

Stamens 5; ovary in 2 uate calipaiohes ‘andl wohl i in- serted above the ovary .

Stamens 10; rn in 5 parts cealys and corolla distinetly irregular ... ..

Upper petal mach, a Desa and outside: ‘the ore stamens 10; fruit 2-valved ...

Upper pair of petals rather shorter than the rest, “and recurved; stamens 5; fruit 3-valved ... ...

Corolla regular ... ... Corolla ay Feaulan, sometimes appearing regular, t but split on one side . aye ee Corolla incerted Bdlineo or rnsaity | es the ovary Corolla arising above the ies or biscigiis and closely enclosing it . ae gig eee nee Pistil of 2 to 5 ‘Pros or nearly _ a avuiled | parts Pistil entire or lobed . . Flowers in an erect aes or rales 2 in ‘the test ae stamens not inserted on the corolla ... .. , Flowers in a one-sided coiled raceme; stamens inserted on: ‘the corolla: avs sin sg see eo ais Gee Hee een woe see OA ee Stamens 2 or 4; corolla never quite regular, often divided nearly to the base ... ... Stamens 5; corolla cate reguler, divided we wie’

ee trail t only a“ the entre = hase; | flyer sis ahiite

‘deeply or slightly

. Flowers numerous, in one-sided coiled spikes; styles 5 .

Flowers few, in erect racemes or cymes; 5 filiform pro- -cesses alternate with the stamens; style single

Flowers white, pink, Ot se eae hee en

. Flowers few together, on lateral or tetrad ‘partineled

that are never axillary; anthers erect round the stale, opening by terminal pores... .

Flowers axillary, usually solitary ; stamens “spreading . nn


lxix. Euphorbiaceae. 17.







xxii. lii.


xlvi. xlvii. li.

liv. liii.

x. Geraniacee. . Linacee.

ix. Droseracee.

. Crucifere. . Portulaccacea.

ii. Lythracee. 19.

i. Umbellifere. i. Stylidiacee. 20.


Onagracee. 22.





Violacea. 25.

35. 26.


27. 28.


Boraginacee. Scrophulariacee. 29.

30. 31.


Primulacee. Gentianacee. 32

Solanaceae. Convolvulacee.











46. 47.

48. 49.

50. 61. 52.


Stamens and pistil on separate ayes flowers on axillary peduncles ... ... sais i a se! Gainmor Dai a

Flowers terminal, perfect .. e

Flowers solitary or few inwethees counlle teiciagaaus white or blue... ... ..

Flowers few or numerous, ‘in ‘dense heads or spikes, small.

and obscure; corolla scarious, 4-lobed .

Stamens more or less combined with one » another ee inferior ... . ele: Biss GERD wr Reis BE sas 3 Stamens perfectly free ws... ; Stamens intimately blended iki es style, i in a movable trigger-like or irritable column ... a Stamens 5, forming a tube round the style ..

Flowers numerous, in dense cushion-like hpaee, as in Compositee, only the stamens are free ... ... 02. ce vee ee Inflorescence loose ... ... aie

Ovary superior; sepals 2; abamere 9, “sahssalye surrounding the ovary ;_ nearly leafless ... .. Soptaeis Ovary superior; calyx 4 or 5- lobed ; stamens 2 or 4... ... Ovary inferior or partially so; corolla split to the base on the upper side; stigma in a linear or curved process.

Leafless, or, if leafy, the leaves malls 3 and the stem angled : wah tags: waved fara

Leaves fairly, numerous and. conspicuous ibe ation

Leafless parasites, sometimes creeping on ihe erage anthers opening by valves ...

Erect, with angled stems; leaves af present) 1 few and distant . a

Stems fleshy, ‘swollen, | and jointed .

. Flowers at least } in, diameter

Flowers under } in., mostly obscure. and. minute ce ; : : a

. Leaves much divided .

Leaves entire, toothed or lobed .

. Perianth distinctly inferior

Perianth ercleaine: the ay often with | long | “parbed spines .., ... .. sears

. Leaves with scarious sheathing stipules .

Stipules absent or small .

Flowers small, gathered sate neil alee ‘flat, hemeiinal heads, surrounded by an inyolucre wea

Flowers otherwise disposed, if in beats neither flat ‘nor surrounded by an involucre . Sie see

Flowers generally numerous, in terminal or ia racemes, panicles, or spikes’ sei ies za

Flowers axillary, solitary or few, sessile or ‘nearly $0...

Flowers very obscure, terminal or axillary, few together, surrounded by an involucre of leaves; ovary 3-lobe

Flower-clusters strictly terminal .

Flower-clusters chiefly axillary .

Flowers in loose racemes ... 0. 6... cee cee cee cee cen tue aus

Flowers in dense hairy heads ...

Flowers in dense sia or spikes, but not interspersed with long hairs .. sie , a :

Leaves glabrous, or with wlkte sealed bs

Leaves bearing few or many coarse, often stinging, hairs.

Leaves broad and flat ..

Leaves filiform or fleshy ..

Leaves exceeding } in. Tail Plants . Leaves under 3 in. Water plants ..

xxxiv. Cucurbitacee.. 34,

xliii. Campanulacee. lix. Plantaginacee.

36. 37.

xli. Stylidiacee. xliii. Campanulacee.

. (p.71.) Dipsacacee. : 38.

lvi. Lentibulacee. lv. Scrophulariacee.

xlii. Goodeniacee.

40. 41.

lxvi. Lauracee.

lxix. Huphorbiacee. _lxi. Chenopodiaceae. i. Ranunculacee.


43. 44,

v. Crucifere.

xxvi. Rosacee. ixiv. Polygoniacee. 45.

xxxvi. Umbellifere.

46. Ixviii. Thymeliacee. 47.

48. 61.

lxix. Euphorbiacee. 49. 50.

v. Crucifere. Ixii. Amarantacee.

XxX. Haloragee.

lxi. Chenopodiacee.. Ixx. Urticaceae.


53. lxx. Urticacee. xxx. Haloragee.








. Petals

. Stamens numerous .

. Floral tube, ‘Hike a ‘tubular calyx, “Hee. ovary

. Ovary

. Corolla 4-lobed ;

. Flowers blue or pink, solitary in the abate . Flowers white, small; calyx of 2 broad sepals ... .


Ovary in 4 parts; perianth superior or none... ... ... ... Ovary globose ; perianth green, obscure, inferior Perianth conspicuous, pink or scarious ... 00. 11. 66. eee oe

. Flowers with a distinct calyx and corolla ... ...

Flowers with but one floral envelope, often obscure ... ...

uite free from one another ... 0... 00. 66s cee cee cee eee

Petals slightly or much united

. Corolla inserted beneath the ovary .

Corolla inserted above the i or on the calyx, at a distance from the base ... ... we Lia ea Ream aamnteare os siento

Stamens 10 or fewer .

. Flowers minute or ateeunss serially, petals, stamens, ea

carpels 3 or 4. Flowers often small, “put “easily defined .

Leaves flat; flowers sessile, solitary or in one 5 atl only of a pair of Teaves pistil entire ... .. Leaves linear; ‘lowers pedunculate

one another ... ...

Sepals, petals, and adie ions of niet! 4: euiaus 8 Sepals, petals, stamens, and swtylee 5; petals entire; fruit 0 parts ... .. Sepals and petals ‘usually 5; often notched ; aware with many seeds on a central placenta ... ... .

vearpels: ‘free from

“stamens 10 or fewer; “petals

. Flowers petri petals numerous ; leaves Heel and fleshy.

Petals 5 or 4.

Calyx-lobes "and corolla arising above the ovary; lobes and petals 4 ... seikraslgd Say

short; short greenish ... .

Ovary long, linear; " petals ‘conspicuous, “pink, white or yellow .. asiensemesecs _ ate

‘calya-lobes “and petals and


. Corolla regular or neue so.

Corolla irregular ... ... ...

. Corolla arising from the cae or feral fake Helaw’ ‘the

ovary .. sits: Si8e win Corolla and calyx-lobes. arising ‘above the ovary

stamens 2 to4.

Corolla 5-lobed; stamens 5 .

. Corolla usually blue, split meee to the 1 aarens 2.

Corolla white, lobes short; stamens 4 .

Flowers ees white, or gellow, twisted when dry 5 calyx 5-lobed . eee

Flowers inal, colitary or dinstanaa a in. “ie sales uae terminal . : a ae conspicuous, ‘blue, terminal, ‘solitary, ¢ ‘on a ‘long stal : wists

Stem square; ovary of Zour 1esailed putes. ane

Stem round; flowers pink, in an elongating spike; ovary entire, 4-seeded ...

Stem round; flowers ‘plué or yellow j ovary centre, “with two many-seeded Cells ... ... ... i vain cet

Leaves pale green; flowers shsaiteaninalis terninal, snd surrounded by an involucre of aie in in 3 parts. Plant not so constructed . is

Flowers sessile, generally ealisaiy or ie siaaeehom. in ‘thie leaf-axils, and chiefly towards my ends of the branches. Flowers stalked, sometimes in branched clusters

xiii xxx. Haloragea. : lxi. Chenopodiaceae. lxii. Amarantacea. 55. 71. 56. 64. 57. 61. xiv. Hypericacee. 58. 59. 60. xiii. Hlatinacee. xxviii. Crassulacee. xxl. Rutacea. xviii. Linacee. xi. Caryophyllacea. xxxv. Ficoidea. 62. xxxii. Lythracee. 63. xxx. Haloragee. .. Xxxiii. Onagracee. 65. 70. 66. 69. 67. 68, ly. Scrophulariacee. 1. Loganiacee. xlvii. Primulacee. xii. Portulacacee. li. Gentianacee. xxxix. Rubiacee. xliii. Campanulacee. lviii. Labiate. .(p. 146.) Verbenacee. lv. Scrophulariacee. Ixix. Huphorbiacee. 72, 73. 76.


73. Leaves linear, hard, rough or dry ss 74. Leaves filiform to oblong, sneantent, fleshy, ‘smooth ... 75. 74, Leaves in whorls of 4 or more; corolla distinct ... ... .-. xxxix. Rubiaceae. Leaves opposite, connected at the bases ; flowers hard . lxil. Paronychiacee. 75. Perianth inferior; ovary entire, globular ; leaves epee, lxi. Chenopodiacee. Perianth superior. or none ; ae ovoid, often in 4 aad leaves often in whorls... .... . eee ? xxx. Haloragee. 76. Perianth distinctly gafediat ene awe ia 77. Perianth superior or appearing so . is enh 78, 77. Hach flower on a distinct stalk ; feces aulen’ 4 in, lie xi. Caryophyllacee. Flowers numerous, in branched clusters; leaves 1-3 in. lxx. Urticacee. 78. Leaves in whorls; flowers herbaceous, white or yellow ... + Rubiacee. Leaves opposite, connected at their bases ; flowers hard.. Ixiii. Paronychiacee. 79. Leaves mostly alternate or none, in some instances in clusters at intervals along the branches ... ... ... ... ... 80. Leaves opposite or truly whorled ... ... 0... 10. .0. cee eee 122. 80. Flowers with a distinct calyx and corolla ... ... 12. 22. ce. eee 81. Flowers with but one floral envelope ... ... .... < 109. 81. Petals quite free from one Greener nes aomiabimes partially adhering .. a a a - 82, Petals more or less united ... --. .-- -- (as Bidet abe acer 102. 82. Stamens generally 5, rarely ee sometimes Saier sia ae 83. Stamens more than’ 5, often E abeent from flowers with perfect ovaries ... ... .., nj alas cape schist epaghe Habre eter cael) Crctee ate 90. 83. Ovaries superior or oe BO tsduasioat actedny ausassudaee ase 84, Ovary inferior or appearing so... ... . edi eee aka 87. 84. Flowers bright yellow; CHEN in 2 or 3 arts. fi as ii. Dilleniacee. Flowers pink or white ... .. sia ee ss 85. 85. Leaves toothed or crenate on Sits: margin see vee cee vee eee «XXL. Saxifragacee. Leaves entire on the margin . ois 86. 86. Plant rigid; leaves in small slaeters, we Satreulas flowers . in numerous small (nearly sessile) clusters . vi. Violacee. Plant and leaves otherwise; flowers solitary, ‘stalked . vii. Pittosporacee. 87. Leaves entire or none ... 12. 1.. cee cee cee see cee ee eee one 88. Leaves lobed or divided . wa i 89.

88. Petals reduced to small hoods, over-arching the sissy

ovary immersed or appearing inferior . xxiii. Rhamnocee.

Petals spreading; ovary truly inferior ... ... . oon xxxi. Myrtacee. 89. Leaves palmately divided; flowers in belies fruits suc- culent . . Xxxvii. Araliacew. ; Leaves pinnately divided ; flowers usually few, ‘in n axillary clusters; fruit dry .. esas 3 we eee XxXxVi. Umbellifera, 90. Flowers very irregular Sai Gopi siei ade? Sad maarn aivae piles ievay ae Gas xxv. Leguminose. Flowers nearly or quite regular nda lapitner ates Gueh atreeaee Bee 91. ; 91. Leaves divided into leaflets ... 0.00... 00. cee cee cae ce cee eee 92.

Leaves entire ...

seats 93.

92. Leaves with few ee fenfeter 5 pela 2 conspicuous, pink or white . ,

Leaves with very, numerous small leaflets : petals minute,

yelors stamens uety sciaesgeuiee much oe the corolla ... ..

xxvi. Rosacea.

xxv. Leguminose. 93. Stamens numerous, atten ina ‘oohiteal celieene or ‘Hidieg the pistil where that organ is present, sometimes few

where the pistil is absent . 94. Stamens 10 or nes. surrounding or at the ‘side of ‘the pistil . 98.

94, Stamens, and Perianth superior ; ‘pis prstak, Stamens and perianth inferior, or pistil absent. ..

95. Leaves toothed on the TAB QIN, ee ies aes des eae me dbcahue Giencing 96 Leaves entire on the margin ... ... ... ... ... ... wute wae fobs 97.

xxxi. Myrtacee. 95.

96. 97.





102. 103.




107. 108. 109.








Stamens surrounding the ovary; fruit a isn Stamens on a separate flower; fruit dry .

Leaves flat or linear, and pungent; lewis small, often clustered, yellow ; stamens very numerous, surrounding the ovary; fruit a legume .......

Leaves flat, thick ; flowers few, in racemes, ‘nearly white ; stamens about 15-20, usually on flowers without pistils; fruit a black berry .

Leaves flat; flowers solitary, with obscure ‘perianths ; or leaves linear, and flowers few (in clusters), conspicuous ; petals white ; stamens usually very numerous, on separate flowers to the pistils; fruit rather dry, 3- lobed.

ansieg sides 2 of the leaves Mensely clothed with aksllnte airs... .. Leaves hairless, or nearly SO .

Flowers yellow ... .. Flowers pink or white ..

Perianth and signer SUPOTION cee. dig sede dowd ww coy aes Perianth and stamens inferior ... ... ..

Flowers mostly red; anthers linear, Hines. ovary 5S nine. Hoes mene or nearly SO ; anthers ovate, male cuaiy 4-lobe a aed Sale Wie es HEE EB ais. gata

Stamens inserted balow the ovary . Stamens inserted on the perianth ..

Flowers very irregular ... 20. 10. cc. cee cee cee cee cee eee cee Flowers regular Snacks eae

Leaves stalked, with netted, 1 veins ; . etal 3-3 in. long, only adhering to one another by their margins esa a Glee

Leaves with broad sheathing bases, veins parallel; cor- olla gamopetalous, usually “under 4 in., sometimes fall- ing off in the form of a hood . 2 :

Stamens 10; corolla 4 in. ones hell- shaped .. Stamens 5 or fewer ... ..

Leaves with parallel veins, or at least pithant: a ‘Aiskinot midrib, entire, often narrow ... . Leaves with a midrib and netted veins, ‘entire or lobed..

Leaves large, coarsely lobed; flowers about 1 in. se Leaves entire or slightly toothed . ease

Leaves about 1 in. long, hairy, at ee infinieatli ad me Leaves about 2 in. long, hairless .

Leaves scale-like or none ... 10. 10. cee cee cee cee cee nee aes Leaves normal . nee

Stamens and intl in same Hower: ‘Aiwiens fisncescad side ‘dae Staminate flowers numerous, in terminal ‘Spier visti late flowers in oblong cones ... ...

Branches segmented, fleshy, envuiilente flowers fied in the segments . : bie wa lek ve

Plant wiry, parasitic ; ‘anthers valvular ... .

Plant erect or procumbent, branches angled or striate .

Leaves toothed on the margin . Leaves with a plain margin ...... ..

Leaves rough, 3-4 in. long, hairy hawtenthe ‘Comer: tell, numerous, in a compound panicle ... ..

Leaves rough, 4 to 1 in. long, hairless; ‘flowers “obscure, in small axillary heads; stamens and pistil on separate flowers ...

Leaves smooth, shining; flowers in terminal or lateral in- florescences . :

Scarious siteeale at dhe ues ‘of the Teaver, sheathing the branches . See ih a ity eine Stipules none, or ‘minute, “Hever ‘sheathing ..

Perianth and stamens evden cipsephed! dha ihe ovary. Suge fae at Bay



lxix. xvi. ii. Xxx. viii.




lxxi. lxi.

lxvi. xxiii.






ii. Tiliacee. . Malvacee.



Euphorbiacee. Sterculiacee. 99. Dilleniacee. 100.

Myrtaceae. 101.



103. 105.

Polygalacee. 104.


. Epacridacee. . Ericacee.


. Epacridacee.


. Solanucee. 108.

. Scrophulariacee.. . Myoporacee.

110. 112.



Chenopodiaceae. Lauraceae. Santalacee.


114. Rhamnacee. Cupulifere.


Polygonacee. 115.









122. 123.








131. 132.



Perianth and stamens inserted below the bial hog the

latter organ often absent or rudimentary ... ... 117, Perianth lid-like, thrown off at maturity: winnie .

numerous ... . soueeaee ¥xxL Myrtaceae. Perianth normal ; stamens 4 or 5; ‘flowers minute ... ... .-- lxxiii. Santalacee. Perianth conspicuous, and usually petaloid .. 118. Perianth rather eres ah more the appearance of a

Calyxece. dina. « 120. Small tree, with spines among the ay flowels litte, onus

in loose panicles .. : vii. Pittosporacee. Plant otherwise constructed ; leaves” ‘sometimes acutely

pointed .. ne 119. Stamens De “perianth “usually “dabulan, eat. 4 atiget sy '

spreading ‘lobes, regular ... . Ixviii. Thymeliacee.

Stamens 4, often inserted on the tips ‘of the ‘perianth,

which is of 4 segments, usually linear, and recurved, or

very irregular .. . Ixvii. Proteacee. Stamens more than ‘4, usually numerous, ‘and on separate

flowers to the pistil ; sian obscure, foaaise of 6 nd

ments ... ... .. 5 lxix. Euphorbiacee. Leaves nil flowers hairy, or ‘aurea with erystallans ra

glands ... ... ie ae iis aisle has aaa tuale ae as xxxv. Ficoidee. Plant glabrous .. é 121.

Stamens 8; flowers in "soa aeatenet fen ‘proedly

winged . .. xxiv. Sapindacee. Stamens about 16; ‘flowers solitary, and ‘nearly sessile in

the leaf-axils ; fruit in 2 parts ... ...... a lx. Phytolaccacee. Stamens 9 to very numerous ; flowers. ‘conspicuously : A

stalked or clustered ; fruit 3-lobed or in 3 parts... ... ... lxix. Euphorbiacee, Flowers with a distinct calyx and corolla ... ... ... ... ... 123. Flowers with but one floral envelope ... ... 1... 26. ees cee vee 140. Petals quite free from one another ... ... ... .. 124, Petals more or less united . : 135. Stamens 4-6, usually 5. aes Saisd, pias eeeas ciel uaierse Sea selon Teas 125. Stamens usually 8-12. Sdiaocandee etuidualay tua We taka nea is eee oe roles 128. Stamens very numerous ... ... ... % 133. Ovary superior, but partially immensed, nl often buried

in a fleshy disk, so as to ae inferior ; tsa reduced

to little over-arching hoods . oes tects cee eee eee eee =Xlii, Hhamnacee. Ovary superior ; petals normal . bible: “idee sigle) tine aah ae 126. Ovary distinctly inferior ... ... ... es 127. Flowers small, in loose paniolés, trait a : wolenved Barty;

leaves 1-2 in., oblong; stamens 2 . .. Xlviii. Oleacea. Flowers fairly” conspicuous; fruit 1-4 follicles or nuts;

leaves usually trifoliate; petals 4; stamens 4 . cio ei xxi. Rutacee. Leaves large, divided . conte eee see see cee eee eee ves EXXVIL. Caprifoliacee. Leaves small, linear to ‘oblong .. ocean wee = &XKL. Myrtaceae. Leaves divided into 2 simple leaflets on a common ‘absile xix. Zygophyllacee. Leaves entire, toothed or divided into 3 or more lobes or

leaflets ... ... .. sinh Mistand Cyt 129. Leaves simple with a : tacthed « or cena margin ... ... 130. Leaves divided, or, if simple, with an entire margin ... ... 181. Flowers white, bell-shaped, BODES on long slender

stalks; fruit a berry .. xvii. Tiliacee.

Flowers green, obscure, few together, ¢ ‘on a short stalk in the leaf-axils .. shad teste ere eee xxv. Saxifragacee.

Flowers very irregular . dam: Wie. Wein wines aie, hw SUR AER eae caw xxv. Leguminose. Flowers regular .. one

Perianth and starnens inferior; ovals in 4